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Vitamin Elite

Vitamin Elite

Regular price $39.99 USD
Regular price Sale price $39.99 USD
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Vitamin Elite
Regular price $39.99
Regular price Sale price $39.99

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Description

Description

The Endurance Athlete's Multivitamin

  • Complete Multivitamin With Fruits & Greens Superfood Blend
  • Fills The Most Common Micronutrient Gaps In Endurance Athletes*
  • Supports Peak Athletic Performance*
  • Full Spectrum Vitamin B Profile
  • Choline & Magnesium For Muscle & Cognitive Health*
  • Patented Antioxidant Ingredient Spectra
  • Piperine For Increased Absorption*
  • 30 Servings (120 Capsules) Per Bottle
Description

In a perfect world, endurance athletes would consume a well-balanced diet containing whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, thereby aiding in the assurance of the proper intake of all micronutrients. Unfortunately, in the real world, athletes do not have perfect diets. In today's society, the lack of time and the convenience of less-than-ideal food sources tempt people to ingest a diet lacking many of the essential vitamins and minerals needed to maintain a healthy lifestyle and fuel performance. If an athlete's diet is less than favorable, it is recommended that they take a high-quality multivitamin as an easy and cost-effective way to ensure the proper intake of all the essential micronutrients. This is why EndurElite, the most trusted name in endurance sports nutrition, developed Vitamin Elite.

Vitamin Elite is an advanced, therapeutically dosed vitamin, mineral, and antioxidant formula designed specifically to meet the nutritional demands of endurance athletes in training and to fill micronutrient gaps left by an inadequate diet. Vitamin Elite goes far beyond the minimum Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) to support optimal nutritional balance and peak physical and mental performance for hardcore athletes and fitness enthusiasts alike. Vitamins and minerals play critical roles in hundreds of bodily functions. Vitamin Elite acts as a foundation for those nutritional needs and ensures that all of the vital micronutrients and co-factors are available at the crucial times your body needs to perform optimally.

Unlike most multivitamins that are built on fairy dusted combinations of random micronutrients hidden in proprietary blends, Vitamin Elite combines clinically dosed, best-in-class ingredients precisely formulated to deliver exactly what you need to support health, performance, and overall well-being. With EndurElite, transparency and innovation is the name of the game and we do it better than anyone does. This transparency and innovation is reflected in the most superior multivitamin on the market today, Vitamin Elite. It has everything you need in one comprehensive, open-label, clinically dosed formula and nothing that you don't.

Ingredients

Spectra - Spectra™ is a plant-based, scientifically validated formula of fruits, vegetables, and herbs shown to inhibit free radical production, optimize cellular metabolic activity, and increase nitric oxide levels within the human body.

Choline - Acetylcholine esterase inhibition can limit the return of choline to the choline pool. Moreover, choline provided in sufficient amounts may help with increasing acetylcholine and the associated muscle and brain benefits.

Vitamin A - Improves resistance to infection and assists in the growth and repair of body tissues, including muscle.

Vitamin C - Offers multiple antioxidant benefits, boosts immune health, and enhances collagen formation. Vitamin C has also been shown to increase fat loss and nitric oxide production.

Vitamin D - Promotes calcium absorption in the gut and maintains adequate serum calcium and phosphate concentrations to enable normal mineralization of bone and prevent hypocalcemic tetany. Vitamin D has other roles in the body, including modulation of cell growth, neuromuscular and immune function, and reduction of inflammation.

Vitamin E - May decrease levels of creatine kinase and malondialdehyde, markers of mechanical and oxidative muscle damage. Hence, vitamin E is critical for muscle recovery.

Vitamin K - Best known for its role in helping blood clot, or coagulate, properly. Vitamin K also plays an important role in bone health.

Thiamin - Involved in many body functions, including nervous system and muscle function, the flow of electrolytes in and out of nerve and muscle cells, digestion, and carbohydrate metabolism

Riboflavin - In addition to producing energy for the body, riboflavin works as an antioxidant, fighting damaging particles in the body known as free radicals.

Niacin - Helps the body make various sex- and stress-related hormones in the adrenal glands and other parts of the body. Niacin helps improve circulation and has been shown to suppress inflammation.

Vitamin B-6 - Helps the body make several neurotransmitters, chemicals that carry signals from one nerve cell to another. It is needed for normal brain development and function and helps the body make the hormones serotonin and norepinephrine, which influence mood, and melatonin, which helps regulate the body clock.

Folate - Crucial for proper brain function and plays an important role in mental and emotional health.

Vitamin B12 - Maintains healthy nerve cells and helps in the production of DNA and RNA, the body's genetic material. Vitamin B12 works closely with folate to help make red blood cells and to help iron work better in the body.

Biotin - Metabolizes carbohydrates, fats, and amino acids, the building blocks of protein.

Pantothenic Acid - Assists in the production of red blood cells, as well as sex- and stress-related hormones produced in the adrenal glands. Pantothenic acid is also important in maintaining a healthy digestive tract, and it helps the body use other vitamins, particularly riboflavin.

Calcium - Critical in the maintenance of bone and protecting the skeleton from degradation, calcium is also needed in order for muscle contractions to occur.

Iron - Component of hundreds of proteins and enzymes in the body and is an essential element for blood production. Of the single nutrients, iron deficiency is the most common in the world.

Phosphorus - Required for every cell in the body to function properly. Involved in energy production from ATP and creatine phosphate.

Iodine - Critical for maintaining the health of the thyroid, a gland that secretes hormones that regulate growth and development

Magnesium - Involved in more than 300 essential metabolic reactions, including metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins

Zinc - Involved in cell signaling and therefore can release hormones and aid in nerve conduction.

Selenium - Works as an antioxidant, especially when combined with vitamin E. Antioxidants like selenium help fight damaging particles in the body known as free radicals. Evidence suggests that selenium may also be critical for muscle strength.

Copper - Necessary for the proper growth, development, and maintenance of bone, connective tissue, brain, heart, and many other body organs. Copper may also increase growth hormone production.

Manganese - Involved in the production of testosterone and the formation of connective tissue.

Chromium - Essential mineral that must be obtained through diet or supplementation. Chromium is involved in glucose metabolism by enhancing the function of insulin.

Molybdenum - Required for allowing cells to produce energy within the mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cells, with the help of broken-down macronutrients.

Potassium - Critical for nerve conduction and muscle contraction

Alpha Lipoic Acid - Mitochondrial fatty acid that is highly involved in energy metabolism. ALA has also shown to be beneficial against various forms of oxidation and inflammation. These effects carry on to benefits that protect one from heart diseases, liver diseases, diabetes, and neurological decline with age.

N-Acetyl Cysteine - Often used for its high antioxidant content to reduce inflammation and counter oxidative stress, it also works to bind various free radicals and poisons in the body so they can be expelled through the digestive process.

Choline Bitartrate - Essential nutrient for brain health and synaptic plasticity. Choline improves structural integrity, signaling capacity, and the fluidity of neural membranes. It's estimated that close to 90% of the population does not get the daily recommended amount of choline.

Citrus Bioflavonoids - Enhances the effects of vitamin C and provides a powerful defense against oxidative stress. Studies have shown benefits of the citrus bioflavonoids on capillary permeability and blood flow.

Inositol - Molecule structurally similar to glucose; heavily involved in cellular signaling. It is effective in treating insulin resistance and reducing symptoms of anxiety.

Silica - Important in bone and collagen formation and may improve hair and nail health, as well as prevent cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer's disease.

Boron - Assists in maintaining healthy bones and mental function. Research also suggests boron can increase levels of free testosterone.

    FAQs

    What is the best way to take Vitamin Elite?

    Take 4 capsules daily with a meal.

    Do I really need to take a multi-vitamin/mineral?

    It is highly recommended to supplement with a multi-vitamin/mineral (especially athletes) as research has shown that even the best diets are micronutrient deficient.

    What makes Vitamin Elite better than other multi-vitamins?

    The level of label transparency and the quality, clinically dosed and effective ingredients that go beyond the RDA recommendations.

    What other EndurElite products do you recommend stacking with Vitamin Elite?

    Vitamin Elite can be stacked with any other Endurelite product.
    References

    Vitamin A

    1. Zile, M. H., & Cullum, M. E. (1983). The function of vitamin A: current concepts. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 172(2), 139-152.
    2. Dowling, J. E., & Wald, G. (1960). The biological function of vitamin A acid. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 46(5), 587-608.
    3. Ross, A. C., & Gardner, E. M. (1994). The function of vitamin A in cellular growth and differentiation, and its roles during pregnancy and lactation. In Nutrient Regulation during Pregnancy, Lactation, and Infant Growth(pp. 187-200). Springer, Boston, MA.

    Vitamin C

    1. Moyad, M. A., & Combs, M. A. (2007). Vitamin C Dietary Supplements: An Objective Review of the Clinical Evidence. Parts I-III. In Seminars in Preventive and Alternative Medicine. Elsevier Inc..
    2. Stone, N., & Meister, A. (1962). Function of ascorbic acid in the conversion of proline to collagen hydroxyproline. Nature, 194, 555-557.
    3. Gale, C. R., Martyn, C. N., Winter, P. D., & Cooper, C. (1995). Vitamin C and risk of death from stroke and coronary heart disease in cohort of elderly people. Bmj, 310(6994), 1563-1566.

    Vitamin D

    1. Littlejohns, T. J., Henley, W. E., Lang, I. A., Annweiler, C., Beauchet, O., Chaves, P. H., ... & Lopez, O. L. (2014). Vitamin D and the risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease. Neurology, 83(10), 920-928.
    2. Spedding, S. (2014). Vitamin D and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing studies with and without biological flaws. Nutrients, 6(4), 1501-1518.
    3. Burgaz, A., Orsini, N., Larsson, S. C., & Wolk, A. (2011). Blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and hypertension: a meta-analysis. Journal of hypertension, 29(4), 636-645.
    4. Gordan, R., Gwathmey, J. K., & Xie, L. H. (2015). Autonomic and endocrine control of cardiovascular function. World journal of cardiology, 7(4), 204.
    5. Ceglia, L. (2009). Vitamin D and its role in skeletal muscle. Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care, 12(6), 628.
    6. Bischoff-Ferrari, H. A., Dawson-Hughes, B., Willett, W. C., Staehelin, H. B., Bazemore, M. G., Zee, R. Y., & Wong, J. B. (2004). Effect of vitamin D on falls: a meta-analysis. Jama, 291(16), 1999-2006.
    7. Cannell, J. J., Vieth, R., Umhau, J. C., Holick, M. F., Grant, W. B., Madronich, S., ... & Giovannucci, E. (2006). Epidemic influenza and vitamin D. Epidemiology & Infection, 134(6), 1129-1140.
    8. Pilz, S., Frisch, S., Koertke, H., Kuhn, J., Dreier, J., Obermayer-Pietsch, B., ... & Zittermann, A. (2011). Effect of vitamin D supplementation on testosterone levels in men. Hormone and Metabolic Research, 43(3), 223.

    Vitamin E

    1. Brigelius-Flohe, R., & Traber, M. G. (1999). Vitamin E: function and metabolism. The FASEB Journal, 13(10), 1145-1155.
    2. Herrera, E., & Barbas, C. (2001). Vitamin E: action, metabolism and perspectives. Journal of physiology and biochemistry, 57(1), 43-56.
    3. Azzi, A., Ricciarelli, R., & Zingg, J. M. (2002). Non‐antioxidant molecular functions of α‐tocopherol (vitamin E). FEBS letters, 519(1-3), 8-10.

    Thiamin

    1. Weiss, S. (1940). Occidental Beriberi with Cardiovascular Manifestations: Its Relation to Thiamin Deficiency. Journal of the American Medical Association, 115(10), 832-839.
    2. Collins, G. H. (1966). An electron microscopic study of remyelination in the brainstem of thiamin deficient rats. The American journal of pathology, 48(2), 259.
    3. Wintrobe, M. M., Mitchell, D. M., & Kolb, L. C. (1938). Sensory Neuron Degeneration in Vitamin Deficiency: Degeneration of the Posterior Columns of the Spinal Cord, Peripheral Nerves, and Dorsal Root Ganglion Cells in Young Pigs Fed a Diet Containing Thiamin and Riboflavin but Otherwise Deficient in Vitamin B Complex. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 68(2), 207-220.
    4. Muller, Y. A., Lindqvist, Y., Furey, W., Schulz, G. E., Jordan, F., & Schneider, G. (1993). A thiamin diphosphate binding fold revealed by comparison of the crystal structures of transketolase, pyruvate oxidase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Structure, 1(2), 95-103.

    Riboflavin

    1. Burch, H. B. (1957). [141] Fluorimetric assay of FAD, FMN, and riboflavin.
    2. Lakshmi, R., Lakshmi, A. V., & Bamji, M. S. (1989). Skin wound healing in riboflavin deficiency. Biochemical medicine and metabolic biology, 42(3), 185-191.
    3. Rushton, D. H. (2002). Nutritional factors and hair loss. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology: Clinical dermatology, 27(5), 396-404.
    4. Cantaluppi, G. (1962). Clinico-experimental data on the use of riboflavin in the therapy of muscular cramps in pregnancy. Minerva ginecologica, 14, 984.
    5. THOYER-ROZAT, J., BLANPIN, O., & PIERRE, R. (1962). Riboflavin in muscular cramp in pregnancy. Experimental and clinical study. Semaine des Hopitaux de Paris, 38(7).
    6. Hassan, R. M., & Thurnham, D. I. (1977). Effect of riboflavin deficiency on the metabolism of the red blood cell. International journal for vitamin and nutrition research, 47(4), 349-355.

    Niacin

    1. Morris, B. J. (2013). Seven sirtuins for seven deadly diseases ofaging. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 56, 133-171.
    2. Hwang, E. S., & Song, S. B. (2017). Nicotinamide is an inhibitor of SIRT1 in vitro, but can be a stimulator in cells. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 74(18), 3347-3362.
    3. Jacobson, E. L., & Jacobson, M. K. (1997). [19] Tissue NAD as a biochemical measure of niacin status in humans. In Methods in enzymology(Vol. 280, pp. 221-230). Academic Press.
    4. Malfait, P., Moren, A., Dillon, J. C., Brodel, A., Begkoyian, G., Etchegorry, M. G., ... & Hakewill, P. (1993). An outbreak of pellagra related to changes in dietary niacin among Mozambican refugees in Malawi. International Journal of Epidemiology, 22(3), 504-511.
    5. Figueiredo, V. N., Vendrame, F., Colontoni, B. A., Quinaglia, T., Matos-Souza, J. R., Moura, F. A., ... & Sposito, A. C. (2014). Short-term effects of extended-release niacin with and without the addition of laropiprant on endothelial function in individuals with low HDL-C: a randomized, controlled crossover trial. Clinical therapeutics, 36(6), 961-966.

    Vitamin B6

    1. Denner, L. A., & Wu, J. Y. (1985). Two forms of rat brain glutamic acid decarboxylase differ in their dependence on free pyridoxal phosphate. Journal of neurochemistry, 44(3), 957-965.
    2. Zhuo, J. M., & Praticò, D. (2010). Acceleration of brain amyloidosis in an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model by a folate, vitamin B6 and B12-deficient diet. Experimental gerontology, 45(3), 195-201.
    3. RICHERT, D. A., & SCHULMAN, M. P. (1959). Vitamin interrelationships in heme synthesis. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 7(4), 416-425.
    4. Hedrick, J. L., & Fischer, E. H. (1965). On the Role of Pyridoxal 5'-Phosphate in Phosphorylase. I. Absence of Classical Vitamin B6—dependent Enzymatic Activities in Muscle Glycogen Phosphorylase. Biochemistry, 4(7), 1337-1343.
    5. OKADA, M., ISHIKAWA, K., & WATANABE, K. (1991). Effect of vitamin B6 deficiency on glycogen metabolism in the skeletal muscle, heart, and liver of rats. Journal of nutritional science and vitaminology, 37(4), 349-357.

    Vitamin B12

    1. Woolf, K., & Manore, M. M. (2006). B-vitamins and exercise: does exercise alter requirements?. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, 16(5), 453-484.
    2. Paulin, F. V., Zagatto, A. M., Chiappa, G. R., & de Tarso Müller, P. (2017). Addition of vitamin B12 to exercise training improves cycle ergometer endurance in advanced COPD patients: A randomized and controlled study. Respiratory medicine, 122, 23-29.
    3. Lukaski, H. C. (2004). Vitamin and mineral status: effects on physical performance. Nutrition, 20(7-8), 632-644.
    4. Lövblad, K. O., Ramelli, G., Remonda, L., Nirkko, A. C., Ozdoba, C., & Schroth, G. (1997). Retardation of myelination due to dietary vitamin B 12 deficiency: cranial MRI findings. Pediatric radiology, 27(2), 155-158.
    5. Pfohl-Leszkowicz, A., Keith, G., & Dirheimer, G. (1991). Effect of cobalamin derivatives on in vitro enzymic DNA methylation: methylcobalamin can act as a methyl donor. Biochemistry, 30(32), 8045-8051.

    Biotin

    1. Shiio, I., ÔTSUKA, S. I., & TAKAHASHI, M. (1962). Effect of biotin on the bacterial formation of glutamic acid: I. Glutamate formation and cellular permeability of amino acids. The Journal of Biochemistry, 51(1), 56-62.
    2. Wang, Z. Q., Zhang, X. H., & Cefalu, W. T. (2000). Chromium picolinate and biotin enhance glycogen synthesis and glycogen synthase gene expression in human skeletal muscle culture. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 50, 395.

    Pantothenic Acid

    1. Kelly, G. S. (1999). Nutritional and botanical interventions to assist with the adaptation to stress. Alternative medicine review: a journal of clinical therapeutic, 4(4), 249-265.
    2. Evans, M., Rumberger, J. A., Azumano, I., Napolitano, J. J., Citrolo, D., & Kamiya, T. (2014). Pantethine, a derivative of vitamin B5, favorably alters total, LDL and non-HDL cholesterol in low to moderate cardiovascular risk subjects eligible for statin therapy: a triple-blinded placebo and diet-controlled investigation. Vascular health and risk management, 10, 89.
    3. Ralli, E. P., & Dumm, M. E. (1953). Relation of pantothenic acid to adrenal cortical function. Vitam Horm, 11, 133-158.

    Vitamin K

    1. Knapen, M. H. J., Schurgers, L. J., & Vermeer, C. (2007). Vitamin K2 supplementation improves hip bone geometry and bone strength indices in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis international, 18(7), 963-972.
    2. Maresz, K. (2015). Proper calcium use: vitamin K2 as a promoter of bone and cardiovascular health. Integrative Medicine: A Clinician's Journal, 14(1), 34.
    3. Huang, Z. B., Wan, S. L., Lu, Y. J., Ning, L., Liu, C., & Fan, S. W. (2015). Does vitamin K2 play a role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis for postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Osteoporosis international, 26(3), 1175-1186.
    4. Shea, M. K., Booth, S. L., Massaro, J. M., Jacques, P. F., D'Agostino Sr, R. B., Dawson-Hughes, B., ... & Vasan, R. S. (2007). Vitamin K and vitamin D status: associations with inflammatory markers in the Framingham Offspring Study. American journal of epidemiology, 167(3), 313-320.
    5. Hauschka, P. V., Lian, J. B., Cole, D. E., & Gundberg, C. M. (1989). Osteocalcin and matrix Gla protein: vitamin K-dependent proteins in bone. Physiological reviews, 69(3), 990-1047.

    Folic Acid

    1. Welzel, T. M., Katki, H. A., Sakoda, L. C., Evans, A. A., London, W. T., Chen, G., ... & McGlynn, K. A. (2007). Blood folate levels and risk of liver damage and hepatocellular carcinoma in a prospective high-risk cohort. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers, 16(6), 1279-1282.
    2. Shrubsole, M. J., Jin, F., Dai, Q., Shu, X. O., Potter, J. D., Hebert, J. R., ... & Zheng, W. (2001). Dietary folate intake and breast cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Cancer research, 61(19), 7136-7141.
    3. Su, L. J., & Arab, L. (2001). Nutritional status of folate and colon cancer risk: evidence from NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study. Annals of epidemiology, 11(1), 65-72.
    4. Wilson, R. D., Désilets, V., Wyatt, P., Langlois, S., Gagnon, A., Allen, V., ... & Koren, G. (2007). Pre-conceptional vitamin/folic acid supplementation 2007: the use of folic acid in combination with a multivitamin supplement for the prevention of neural tube defects and other congenital anomalies. Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada, 29(12), 1003-1013.

    Boron

    1. Pizzorno, L. (2015). Nothing boring about boron. Integrative Medicine: A Clinician's Journal, 14(4), 35.
    2. Naghii, M. R. (1999). The significance of dietary boron, with particular reference to athletes. Nutrition and health, 13(1), 31-37.
    3. Nielsen FH, Stoecker BJ. (2009) Boron and fish oil have different beneficial effects on strength and trabecular microarchitecture of bone. J Trace Elem Med Biol.23(3):195–203
    4. Dupre, J. N., Keenan, M. J., Hegsted, M., & Brudevold, A. M. (1994). Effects of dietary boron in rats fed a vitamin D-deficient diet. Environmental health perspectives, 102(Suppl 7), 55.

    Calcium

    1. Johnston Jr, C. C., Miller, J. Z., Slemenda, C. W., Reister, T. K., Hui, S., Christian, J. C., & Peacock, M. (1992). Calcium supplementation and increases in bone mineral density in children. New England journal of medicine, 327(2), 82-87.
    2. Reid, I. R., Ames, R. W., Evans, M. C., Gamble, G. D., & Sharpe, S. J. (1995). Long-term effects of calcium supplementation on bone loss and fractures in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. The American journal of medicine, 98(4), 331-335.
    3. Ebashi, S., & Endo, M. (1968). Calcium and muscle contraction. Progress in biophysics and molecular biology, 18, 123-183.

    Phosphorus

    1. Teegarden, D., Lyle, R. M., McCabe, G. P., McCabe, L. D., Proulx, W. R., Michon, K., ... & Weaver, C. M. (1998). Dietary calcium, protein, and phosphorus are related to bone mineral density and content in young women. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 68(3), 749-754.

    Iodine

    1. Liu, Y., Zhang, L., Li, J., Shan, Z., & Teng, W. (2013). Effects of Marginal Iodine Deficiency on rat offspring. Journal of Endocrinology, JOE-12.
    2. Sethi, V., & Kapil, U. (2004). Iodine deficiency and development of brain. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 71(4), 325-329.
    3. Zimmermann, M. B., & Galetti, V. (2015). Iodine intake as a risk factor for thyroid cancer: a comprehensive review of animal and human studies. Thyroid research, 8(1), 8.
    4. Abrams, G. M., & Larsen, P. R. (1973). Triiodothyronine and thyroxine in the serum and thyroid glands of iodine-deficient rats. The Journal of clinical investigation, 52(10), 2522-2531.

    Magnesium

    1. Food and Nutrition Board. (1997). Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D and floride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1997
    2. Volpe, S. L. (2015). Magnesium and the athlete. Current sports medicine reports, 14(4), 279-283.
    3. McDonald, R., & Keen, C. L. (1988). Iron, zinc and magnesium nutrition and athletic performance. Sports Medicine, 5(3), 171-184.
    4. Lukaski, H. C., & Nielsen, F. H. (2002). Dietary magnesium depletion affects metabolic responses during submaximal exercise in postmenopausal women. The Journal of nutrition, 132(5), 930-935.
    5. Vecchiet, L., Pieralisi, G., D’Ovidio, M., Dragani, L., Felzani, G., Mincarini, A., ... & Piovanelli, P. (1995). Effects of magnesium supplementation on maximal and submaximal effort. Magnesium and Physical Activity, 227-237.
    6. Brilla, L. R., & Gunther, K. B. (1995). Effect of magnesium supplementation on exercise time to exhaustion. Med Exerc Nutr Health, 4, 230-233.

    Zinc

    1. Kilic, M., Baltaci, A. K., Gunay, M., Gökbel, H., Okudan, N., & Cicioglu, I. (2006). The effect of exhaustion exercise on thyroid hormones and testosterone levels of elite athletes receiving oral zinc. Neuro endocrinology letters, 27(1-2), 247-252.
    2. Masayoshi, Y., Masatsugu, K., & Shoji, O. (1982). Role of zinc as an activator of mitochondrial function in rat liver. Biochemical pharmacology, 31(7), 1289-1293.
    3. Xu, Z., & Zhou, J. (2013). Zinc and myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Biometals, 26(6), 863-878.
    4. Eby, G. A., & Halcomb, W. W. (2006). High-dose zinc to terminate angina pectoris: a review and hypothesis for action by ICAM inhibition. Medical hypotheses, 66(1), 169-172.
    5. Guoa, C. H., Wangb, C. L., Chen, P. C., & Yang, T. C. (2011). Linkage of some trace elements, peripheral blood lymphocytes, inflammation, and oxidative stress in patients undergoing either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Peritoneal Dialysis International, 31(5), 583-591.
    6. Mocchegiani, E., Costarelli, L., Giacconi, R., Cipriano, C., Muti, E., & Malavolta, M. (2006). Zinc-binding proteins (metallothionein and α-2 macroglobulin) and immunosenescence. Experimental gerontology, 41(11), 1094-1107.
    7. Kordas, K., Siegel, E. H., Olney, D. K., Katz, J., Tielsch, J. M., Kariger, P. K., ... & Stoltzfus, R. J. (2009). The effects of iron and/or zinc supplementation on maternal reports of sleep in infants from Nepal and Zanzibar. Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics: JDBP, 30(2), 131.
    8. Song, C. H., Kim, Y. H., & Jung, K. I. (2012). Associations of zinc and copper levels in serum and hair with sleep duration in adult women. Biological trace element research, 149(1), 16-21.

    Selenium

    1. Stapleton, S. R. (2000). Selenium: an insulin mimetic. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS, 57(13-14), 1874-1879.
    2. Drutel, A., Archambeaud, F., & Caron, P. (2013). Selenium and the thyroid gland: more good news for clinicians. Clinical endocrinology, 78(2), 155-164.
    3. Toulis, K. A., Anastasilakis, A. D., Tzellos, T. G., Goulis, D. G., & Kouvelas, D. (2010). Selenium supplementation in the treatment of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a systematic review and a meta-analysis. Thyroid, 20(10), 1163-1173.
    4. Behne, D., Weiler, H., & Kyriakopoulos, A. (1996). Effects of selenium deficiency on testicular morphology and function in rats. Journal of reproduction and fertility, 106(2), 291-297.
    5. Maggio, M., De Vita, F., Lauretani, F., Buttò, V., Bondi, G., Cattabiani, C., ... & Ceda, G. P. (2013). IGF-1, the cross road of the nutritional, inflammatory and hormonal pathways to frailty. Nutrients, 5(10), 4184-4205.
    6. El-Sisy, G. A., Abdel-Razek, A. M. A., Younis, A. A., Ghallab, A. M., & Abdou, M. S. S. (2008). Effect of dietary zinc or Selenium supplementation on some reproductive hormone levels in male Baladi Goats. Global Vet, 2(2), 46-50.
    7. Neek, L. S., Gaeini, A. A., & Choobineh, S. (2011). Effect of zinc and selenium supplementation on serum testosterone and plasma lactate in cyclist after an exhaustive exercise bout. Biological trace element research, 144(1-3), 454-462.

    Copper

    1. House, E., Mold, M., Collingwood, J., Baldwin, A., Goodwin, S., & Exley, C. (2009). Copper abolishes the β-sheet secondary structure of preformed amyloid fibrils of amyloid-β 42. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 18(4), 811-817.
    2. Kashanian, M., Hadizadeh, H., Faghankhani, M., Nazemi, M., & Sheikhansari, N. (2018). Evaluating the effects of copper supplement during pregnancy on premature rupture of membranes and pregnancy outcome. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 31(1), 39-46.
    3. Al-Bayati, M. A., Jamil, D. A., & Al-Aubaidy, H. A. (2015). Cardiovascular effects of copper deficiency on activity of superoxide dismutase in diabetic nephropathy. North American journal of medical sciences, 7(2), 41.
    4. Allen, K. G., & Klevay, L. M. (1978). Cholesterolemia and cardiovascular abnormalities in rats caused by copper deficiency. Atherosclerosis, 29(1), 81-93.

    Manganese

    1. Leach RM, Harris ED. Manganese. In: O'Dell BL, Sunde RA, eds. Handbook of nutritionally essential minerals. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc; 1997:335-355
    2. Liu, A. H., Heinrichs, B. S., & Leach Jr, R. M. (1994). Influence of manganese deficiency on the characteristics of proteoglycans of avian epiphyseal growth plate cartilage. Poultry science, 73(5), 663-669.
    3. Zhao, Y., Chaiswing, L., Velez, J. M., Batinic-Haberle, I., Colburn, N. H., Oberley, T. D., & Clair, D. K. S. (2005). p53 translocation to mitochondria precedes its nuclear translocation and targets mitochondrial oxidative defense protein-manganese superoxide dismutase. Cancer research, 65(9), 3745-3750.
    4. Bock, C. W., Katz, A. K., Markham, G. D., & Glusker, J. P. (1999). Manganese as a replacement for magnesium and zinc: functional comparison of the divalent ions. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 121(32), 7360-7372.
    5. Wedler, F. C., Denman, R. B., & Roby, W. G. (1982). Glutamine synthetase from ovine brain is a manganese (II) enzyme. Biochemistry, 21(25), 6389-6396.

    Chromium

    1. Mertz, W. (1993). Chromium in human nutrition: a review. The Journal of nutrition, 123(4), 626-633.
    2. Pechova, A., & Pavlata, L. (2007). Chromium as an essential nutrient: a review. VETERINARNI MEDICINA-PRAHA-, 52(1), 1.

    Fruits & Greens

    1. Wang, X., Ouyang, Y., Liu, J., Zhu, M., Zhao, G., Bao, W., & Hu, F. B. (2014). Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Bmj, 349, g4490.
    2. John, J. H., Ziebland, S., Yudkin, P., Roe, L. S., & Neil, H. A. W. (2002). Effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on plasma antioxidant concentrations and blood pressure: a randomised controlled trial. The lancet, 359(9322), 1969-1974.
    3. Beecher, G. R. (1999). Phytonutrients' role in metabolism: effects on resistance to degenerative processes. Nutrition Reviews, 57(9), 3-6.

    MSM

    1. Debbi, E. M., Agar, G., Fichman, G., Ziv, Y. B., Kardosh, R., Halperin, N., ... & Debi, R. (2011). Efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane supplementation on osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled study. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 11(1), 50.
    2. Barmaki, S., Bohlooli, S., Khoshkhahesh, F., & Nakhostin-Roohi, B. (2012). Effect of methylsulfonylmethane supplementation on exercise—Induced muscle damage and total antioxidant capacity. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 52(2), 170.
    3. Nakhostin‐Roohi, B., Barmaki, S., Khoshkhahesh, F., & Bohlooli, S. (2011). Effect of chronic supplementation with methylsulfonylmethane on oxidative stress following acute exercise in untrained healthy men. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 63(10), 1290-1294.

    Green Tea

    1. Maki, K. C., Reeves, M. S., Farmer, M., Yasunaga, K., Matsuo, N., Katsuragi, Y., ... & Blumberg, J. B. (2008). Green tea catechin consumption enhances exercise-induced abdominal fat loss in overweight and obese adults. The Journal of nutrition, 139(2), 264-270.
    2. Wang, H., Wen, Y., Du, Y., Yan, X., Guo, H., Rycroft, J. A., ... & Mela, D. J. (2010). Effects of catechin enriched green tea on body composition. Obesity, 18(4), 773-779.
    3. Venables, M. C., Hulston, C. J., Cox, H. R., & Jeukendrup, A. E. (2008). Green tea extract ingestion, fat oxidation, and glucose tolerance in healthy humans. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 87(3), 778-784.
    4. Wu, A. H., Spicer, D., Stanczyk, F. Z., Tseng, C., Yang, C. S., & Pike, M. C. (2012). Effect of 2-month controlled green tea intervention on lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and hormonal levels in healthy postmenopausal women. Cancer Prevention Research, canprevres-0407.
    5. Batista, G. D. A. P., Cunha, C. L., Scartezini, M., von der Heyde, R., Bitencourt, M. G., & Melo, S. F. D. (2009). Prospective double-blind crossover study of Camellia sinensis (green tea) in dyslipidemias. Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia, 93(2), 128-134.

    Alpha-Lipoic Acid

    1. Zembron-Lacny, A., Slowinska-Lisowska, M., Szygula, Z., Witkowski, K., Stefaniak, T., & Dziubek, W. (2009). Assessment of the antioxidant effectiveness of alpha-lipoic acid in healthy men exposed to muscle-damaging exercise. J Physiol Pharmacol, 60(2), 139-43.
    2. Xiang, G. D., Pu, J. H., Sun, H. L., & Zhao, L. S. (2010). Alpha-lipoic acid improves endothelial dysfunction in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes, 118(09), 625-629.
    3. Ranieri, M., Sciuscio, M., Cortese, A. M., Santamato, A., Di Teo, L., Ianieri, G., ... & Megna, M. (2009). The Use and Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA), Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA) and Rehabilitation in the Treatment of Back Pain: Effect on Health-Related Quality of Life. International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology, 22(3_suppl), 45-50.

    Coenzyme Q10

    1. Glover, E. I., Martin, J., Maher, A., Thornhill, R. E., Moran, G. R., & Tarnopolsky, M. A. (2010). A randomized trial of coenzyme Q10 in mitochondrial disorders. Muscle & nerve, 42(5), 739-748.
    2. Liao, P., Zhang, Y., Liao, Y., Zheng, N. J., & Zhang, X. (2007). Effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on liver mitochondrial function and aerobic capacity in adolescent athletes. Chinese journal of applied physiology, 23(4), 491-494.
    3. Alehagen, U., Aaseth, J., Alexander, J., & Johansson, P. (2018). Still reduced cardiovascular mortality 12 years after supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 for four years: A validation of previous 10-year follow-up results of a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in elderly. PloS one, 13(4), e0193120.

    Pycnogenol

    1. Belcaro, G., Luzzi, R., Dugall, M., Ippolito, E., & Saggino, A. (2014). Pycnogenol® improves cognitive function, attention, mental performance and specific professional skills in healthy professionals age 35–55. J Neurosurg Sci, 58(4), 239-248.
    2. Belcaro, G., Cesarone, M. R., Steigerwalt, R. J., Di, A. R., Grossi, M. G., Ricci, A., ... & Cacchio, M. (2008). Jet-lag: prevention with Pycnogenol. Preliminary report: evaluation in healthy individuals and in hypertensive patients. Minerva cardioangiologica, 56(5 Suppl), 3-9.
    3. Marini, A., Grether-Beck, S., Jaenicke, T., Weber, M., Burki, C., Formann, P., ... & Krutmann, J. (2012). Pycnogenol® effects on skin elasticity and hydration coincide with increased gene expressions of collagen type I and hyaluronic acid synthase in women. Skin pharmacology and physiology, 25(2), 86-92.
    4. Devaraj, S., Vega-López, S., Kaul, N., Schönlau, F., Rohdewald, P., & Jialal, I. (2002). Supplementation with a pine bark extract rich in polyphenols increases plasma antioxidant capacity and alters the plasma lipoprotein profile. Lipids, 37(10), 931-934.
    5. Koch, R. (2002). Comparative study of Venostasin® and Pycnogenol® in chronic venous insufficiency. Phytotherapy Research, 16(S1), 1-5.
    6. Enseleit, F., Sudano, I., Periat, D., Winnik, S., Wolfrum, M., Flammer, A. J., ... & Krasniqi, N. (2012). Effects of Pycnogenol on endothelial function in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. European heart journal, 33(13), 1589-1597.
    7. Nishioka, K., Hidaka, T., Nakamura, S., Umemura, T., Jitsuiki, D., Soga, J., ... & Higashi, Y. (2007). Pycnogenol®, French maritime pine bark extract, augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans. Hypertension Research, 30(9), 775.
    8. Luzzi, R., Belcaro, G., Zulli, C., Cesarone, M. R., Cornelli, U., Dugall, M., ... & Feragalli, B. (2011). Pycnogenol® supplementation improves cognitive function, attention and mental performance in students. Panminerva medica, 53(3 Suppl 1), 75-82.

    Grape Seed Extract

    1. Kijima, I., Phung, S., Hur, G., Kwok, S. L., & Chen, S. (2006). Grape seed extract is an aromatase inhibitor and a suppressor of aromatase expression. Cancer research, 66(11), 5960-5967.
    2. Vogels, N., Nijs, I. M. T., & Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. (2004). The effect of grape-seed extract on 24 h energy intake in humans. European journal of clinical nutrition, 58(4), 667.
    3. Clifton, P. M. (2004). Effect of grape seed extract and quercetin on cardiovascular and endothelial parameters in high-risk subjects. BioMed Research International, 2004(5), 272-278.
    4. Kar, P., Laight, D., Rooprai, H. K., Shaw, K. M., & Cummings, M. (2009). Effects of grape seed extract in Type 2 diabetic subjects at high cardiovascular risk: a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial examining metabolic markers, vascular tone, inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity. Diabetic Medicine, 26(5), 526-531.

    Saw Palmetto Extract

    1. Bertaccini, A., Giampaoli, M., Cividini, R., Gattoni, G. L., Sanseverino, R., Realfonso, T., ... & Galasso, R. (2012). Observational database serenoa repens (DOSSER): overview, analysis and results. A multicentric SIUrO (Italian Society of Oncological Urology) project. Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia: organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica, 84(3), 117-122.
    2. Suter, A., Saller, R., Riedi, E., & Heinrich, M. (2013). Improving BPH symptoms and sexual dysfunctions with a saw palmetto preparation? Results from a pilot trial. Phytotherapy research, 27(2), 218-226.
    3. Rossi, A., Mari, E., Scarno, M., Garelli, V., Maxia, C., Scali, E., ... & Carlesimo, M. (2012). Comparitive Effectiveness and Finasteride Vs Serenoa Repens in Male Androgenetic Alopecia: A Two-Year Study. International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology, 25(4), 1167-1173.

    Lutein

    1. Nidhi, B., Sharavana, G., Ramaprasad, T. R., & Vallikannan, B. (2015). Lutein derived fragments exhibit higher antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties than lutein in lipopolysaccharide induced inflammation in rats. Food & function, 6(2), 450-460.
    2. Dagnelie, G., Zorge, I. S., & McDonald, T. M. (2000). Lutein improves visual function in some patients with retinal degeneration: a pilot study via the Internet. Optometry (St. Louis, Mo.), 71(3), 147-164.
    3. Mares-Perlman, J. A., Millen, A. E., Ficek, T. L., & Hankinson, S. E. (2002). The body of evidence to support a protective role for lutein and zeaxanthin in delaying chronic disease. Overview. The Journal of nutrition, 132(3), 518S-524S.

    Piperine

    1. Shoba₁, G., Joy₁, D., Joseph₁, T., Rajendran₂, M. M. R., & Srinivas₂, P. S. S. R. (1998). Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Planta medica, 64, 353-356.
    2. Han, H. K. (2011). The effects of black pepper on the intestinal absorption and hepatic metabolism of drugs. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology, 7(6), 721-729.

    Advanced Enzyme Blend (protease, amylase, lipase, cellulose lactase, betaine)

    1. Lami, F., Callegari, C., Tatali, M., Graziano, L., Guidetti, C., Miglioli, M., & Barbara, L. (1988). Efficacy of addition of exogenous lactase to milk in adult lactase deficiency. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 83(10).
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